• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Effect of 8 Weeks of Gymnastic Exercises on Basic and Cognitive Skills in Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
        Marziyeh Sadat  Mirghafariyan Zahra  Koohestani Sini
        Physical activity is used as a method in the treatment of children with motor and cognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of gymnastics training on basic and cognitive skills of children with attention deficit / hype More
        Physical activity is used as a method in the treatment of children with motor and cognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of gymnastics training on basic and cognitive skills of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. The present single subject study is a research design in the form of post-test and pre-test. Case of study was a 5-year-old girl living in Karaj who suffered from attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. The Ulrich test was used to measure motor skills and the London Tower test was used to measure cognitive skills. Exercise interventions include 8 weeks of gymnastic training. After performing the training protocol, the subject participated in the post-test. The results of the exercise showed that gymnastic exercises have improved the level of performance of the child in basic and cognitive skills. Planning according to the needs of the child improves the performance of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The power triangle strategy in the Middle East after the Arab Spring Based on the Offensive and Defensive Realism
        Mohsen  Ghasemi
        Following the Arab Spring in the Middle East and North Africa plus Afghanistan, we saw a change in the structure of power. In fact, with the Egyptian revolution in 2011, the change of government in Libya, Tunisia, Syrian crisis and Afghanistan have changed the c More
        Following the Arab Spring in the Middle East and North Africa plus Afghanistan, we saw a change in the structure of power. In fact, with the Egyptian revolution in 2011, the change of government in Libya, Tunisia, Syrian crisis and Afghanistan have changed the course of many issues. Some countries that have benefited from a better position in the Arab Spring have actually decided to change their behavior and focus on strategies and policies to falsify the right position. Three of these countries have stable states in the Middle East. With the development of the region, Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia have taken power. Iran has been linked by Iraq and Syria, Turkey in Syria and northern Iraq against P.K. K 1 , Finally, Saudi Arabia in Syria, Yemen and Bahrain. The key points of the central analysis of these events are to help assess the foreign policy of Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia in the Middle East. Why are these countries seeking influence in the region? What approach do regional players take in the Middle East? This study defines the foreign policy of these countries, provides explanations about the competition of these powers, and generalizes their policy through the theory of realism, especially defensive and Offensive realism Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Acute and Continuous Effects of Caffeine Consumption with Anaerobic Training on Anaerobic Performance, Body Composition and Serum Lactate Levels in Active Men
        Hossein  Nikroo Kardokh  Esmaeili Zahra  Koohestani Sini Mohammad-Ali Kohanpour Mohammad Reza Dehkhoda Dehkhoda Saeed  Rahmaty Sara Naeimi
        the purpose of this study was to compare acute and continuous effects of caffeine consumption with a four-week anaerobic training on anaerobic performance, serum lactate levels and body composition values in active men. The study design was a quasi- experimenta More
        the purpose of this study was to compare acute and continuous effects of caffeine consumption with a four-week anaerobic training on anaerobic performance, serum lactate levels and body composition values in active men. The study design was a quasi- experimental one. Experimental and control groups were compared in the phases of pre-test and two post- tests. Thirty-two active male students performed a 400m-run and blood samples were collected 2 minutes later. Next day, Wingate test was conducted to assess anaerobic power. Then, all subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: caffeine consumption (Experimental group) and placebo (Control group), performing a 4-week anaerobic exercise. Finally, blood samples have been collected like before; then, each group was divided into 2 subgroups (caffeine or placebo consumption for one day) and blood samples have been collected after a 400m-run again. Subjects also consumed either caffeine or placebo at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight. T-tests were used to analyze data, at a significance level of P<0.05. Four weeks Anaerobic training with and without caffeine consumption decreased the time of 400m-run and elevated serum lactate levels (p=0.001) (higher differences were observed in caffeine group), but had no significant effect on Wingate test results. Weight value only increased in Experimental group. Acute consumption of caffeine in placebo group also decreased the time of 400m-run and elevated lactate levels (p=0.001). Acute and continuous consumption of caffeine along with anaerobic exercise improved anaerobic performance; while increased serum lactate levels in active men. Manuscript profile