• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Importance of Pedestrian Ways in Universities Campuses Design
        Hesam M. Mosharraf  Hesam M. Mosharraf
        Walking is the first way of displacement, which has been reduced considerably due to motorized transportation. The communications inside every university are of great importance on university campuses, especially in major universities that have various buildi More
        Walking is the first way of displacement, which has been reduced considerably due to motorized transportation. The communications inside every university are of great importance on university campuses, especially in major universities that have various buildings and departments with different applications (laboratory, library, restaurants, etc.). This subject is considered from various aspects. When the university area is not appropriate for pedestrians, the need for motorized transportation increases, which has some consequences as noise, visual, and air pollution. Moreover, the roads specialized for automobiles require and occupy much space. On the contrary, pedestrian- oriented developments have great effects on positive environmental and psychological parameters such as social interactions, scientific conversations, creating a lively environment. Apart from these factors, walking is crucial for health and the environment. All these factors cause that pedestrian-oriented developments included in designing educational spaces. The present paper studies the importance and a review of this subject's literature, then the benefits of pedestrian-oriented areas and walking are discussed, and the significance of this issue is considered in designing the universities. Finally, some environmental factors affecting increasing pedestrian- oriented developments are reviewed. The research methodology is library research. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Relationship between Knowledge Sharing and Innovation
        Muhammad Ehsan Mirzaei
        Knowledge sharing is one of the main factors of the knowledge management. This paper aims to show how knowledge sharing can affect innovation. Extant research highlighted technological innovation and administrative innovation. Knowledge sharing can be measures b More
        Knowledge sharing is one of the main factors of the knowledge management. This paper aims to show how knowledge sharing can affect innovation. Extant research highlighted technological innovation and administrative innovation. Knowledge sharing can be measures by knowledge collecting and knowledge donating. The proposed framework of this study links both dimensions of knowledge sharing with two types of innovation Manuscript profile